A primary maturation pond (M1) was spiked with labelled ammonium chloride (15NH4Cl) to track ammonium transformations associated with algal uptake and subsequent sedimentation. Conventional sampling based on grab samples collected from M1 influent, water column and effluent, and processed for unfiltered and filtered TKN, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, found low total nitrogen removal (8%) and high ammonium nitrogen removal (90%). Stable isotope analysis of 15N from suspended organic and ammonium nitrogen fractions in M1 effluent revealed that labelled ammonium was mainly found in the organic fraction (69% of the 15N recovered), rather than the inorganic fraction (5%). Algal uptake was the predominant pathway for ammonia removal, even though conditions were favourable for ammonia volatilization (8.9 , pH,10.1 units, 15.2 , temperature ,18.8 8C). Total nitrogen was removed by ammonia volatilization at 15 g N/ha d (3%), organic nitrogen sedimentation at 105 g N/ha d (20%), and in-pond accumulation due to algaluptake at 377 g N/ha d (71%). Algal uptake of ammonium and subsequent sedimentation and retention in the benthic sludge, after partial ammonification of the algal organic nitrogen, is thus likely to be the dominant mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in maturation ponds during warm summer months in England.